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R&D Reports

vol. 1997 - I (1997.5.31 issue)

Pyriproxyfen A New Insect Growth Regulator

Pyriproxyfen (4-phenoxyphenyl (RS) -2- (2-pyridyloxy) propyl ether)is a photo-stable new insect growth regulator invented and developed by Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. Pyriproxyfen is effective especially against whiteflies, scales and thrips that are relatively insensitive to conventional insecticides. Pyriproxyfen has very little adverse effects on natural enemies and bees so that it can be used as a part of IPM program. It is also effective against mosquitoes, houseflies, cockroaches and cat fleas. Pyriproxyfen has no toxicological and environmental concern.
( by Makoto HATAKOSHI, Hirosi KISIDA, Hitoshi KAWADA, Haruka OOUCHI, Naohiko ISOBE, Satoshi HAGINO )

Development of Positive i-line Resists for Semiconductor Manufacturing

High performance positive photoresists "Sumiresist PFI-series" have been developed. These resists are widely used in semiconductor manufacturers for 16-64 Megabit DRAMs. The resists consist of phenol-formaldehyde (novolak) resin and diazonaphthoquinone compounds as photosensitizers. The design concepts of novolak resin and diazonaphthoquinone are described from the viewpoint of dissolution mechanism of resists to alkali developers. Also a new model is proposed for enhancing performance of positive photoresists that is applicable to 256 Megabit DRAM production.
( by Makoto HANABATA, Yukoh TAKAHASHI, Yasunori UETANI, Haruyoshi OSAKI )

Development of light diffusing PMMA sheets

Poly (methyl methacrylate) is widely used in the world for many optical devices. Recently, to meet the demands for more various kinds of applications, the technique for optimizing the performance of the diffusing sheet must be developed. So we researched the factors which affect the way of light scattering, then developed the technique for estimating the intensity and angular dependence of scattered light, and produced superior performance sheets for lighting cover. In this report, we summarize light diffusing PMMA sheets and the light scattering simulation technique.
( by Tomohiro MAEKAWA, Akiyoshi KANEMITSU, Kenji MANABE )

Development of Cathode Material for Lithium Secondary Batteries and High Performance Lithium Secondary Batteries

Lithium secondary batteries are very attractive for various applications because of high energy density. In commercially available lithium secondary batteries, LiCoO2 is used as an active material for a cathode. LiNiO2, which is also suitable for such batteries, has advantages of low cost and high capacity compared with LiCoO2. However, LiNiO2 demonstrates poor cycle characteristics when it is used at high capacity.
We found that the addition of gallium to LiNiO2 improves the cycling behavior significantly1). The gallium-stabilized LiNiO2 shows superior rechargeable capacity of 190mAh/g and retention of more than 95?? after 100 cycles in the cycling test between 3.0 and 4.3V at room temperature. In this paper, we describe the production method and properties of this newly developed cathode active material, as well as the performance of 18650 cylindrical type test cells. In contrast with the commercially available cells which capacities are not more than 1350mAh, our test cells achieved 1600mAh with excellent cycle characteristics.
( by Kenji NAKANE, Yasunori NISHIDA, Genjiro NISHIKATA, Taketsugu YAMAMOTO, Ken-ichiro KAMI, Tatsuo TATENO, Hitoshi MIURA, Tomoari SATOH )

Indoor Behavior and Risk Assessment for Household Insecticides

To clarify the indoor behavior of household insecticides in space or residual spraying, an aerosol canister (containing a mixture of 0.45g d-Tetramethrin and 0.06g d-Resmethrin in a 300-ml product for space spraying;or containing a mixture of 0.9g d-Phenothrin and 1.1g d-Tetramethrin in a 300-ml product for residual spraying) was applied to a typical Japanese room under various conditions and temporal concentrations in air, floor, wall and ceiling were monitored. Air concentrations were chiefly dependent on ventilation rates but not on air circulation by an air conditioner. During a periodic spraying, the airborne insecticides did not accumulate in the room, but the floor residues gradually increased with the number of sprayings. After cessation of spraying, however, dislodgeable residues on the floor decreased with time.
The time-dependent behavior of the insecticides was simulated by a mathematical model (InPest) developed by the authors, and it was found that the estimated values agreed fully with actually measured ones. Thus, the InPest helped a more comprehensive understanding of the insecticide behavior.
Indoor exposures of the insecticides to room,s occupants were estimated with the monitored concentrations when the space or residual sprayings were periodically done in a room with all windows closed. The margins of safety, which were obtained by dividing the no observed effect levels by exposure levels, were over 100 even for unclothed occupants who live in the room following the space or residual spraying. Thus, it was concluded that these two products can be used without any substantial risks with regard to human health.
( by Yoshihide MATOBA, Jun-ichi OHNISHI, Masatoshi MATSUO )

Development and Industrialization of the Process for Meta-diol Production

Meta-diol is a raw material for producing dialkylperoxides which are used as polymerization catalysts and as polymer modifiers. Meta-diol can be produced by reduction of the hydroperoxide compound in the resorcinol process.
We developed and industrialized the new meta-diol production process based on a Pd catalyzed slurry phase hydrogenation in place of the conventional reduction with sodium sulfite.
( by Toshio NAKAYAMA, Masaru ISHINO, Sigefumi TOKUMASU, Hiroshi MAKI )

The Development of Modified Bayer Process

We have developed a modified Bayer process that in comparison to conventional Bayer process reduces the desilication loss of soda by more 50.
This modified process is applicable to gibbsitic bauxite. It consists of four key unit operations.

Two stream heating and a tubular digestion system
A high rate settler
Seeded post-desilication
High rate washers
( by Takuo HARATO, Kazuhisa ISHIBASHI, Takahiro ISHIDA, Hisakatsu KATO, Michikazu INAMI, Mitsuaki MURAKAMI )

Present status of Structure Elucidation Systems

The following paper describes an outline of structure elucidation in chemical industries. We start with brief descriptions of the structure elucidation of organic compounds. An automation in the process of the structure elucidation is discussed. Contemporary trends in the structure elucidation systems are covered briefly. The systems are classified into several categories, for example, library search systems, spectrum prediction systems, and structure generation systems. The SpecInfo system outlined as the system with the structure generator.
We also describe a structure elucidation system for 2D-NMR spectra. The system named Spec2D has been mainly developed by Sumitomo Chemical Co. The Spec2D system proposes candidate structures for an unknown compound based upon its H-H COSY and 1H-NMR spectra. The proposed structures are verified by comparing between estimated spectra and the input spectrum of the unknown substance.
( by Iwao DOHGANE, Hideyuki MASUI, Kiyoshi NAKAI )

ISO9000 in Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.

Sumitomo Chemical has obtained ISO9002 certificates for the Company,s all manufacturing sites. ISO9002 is an international quality assurance standard which assures that these sites have an effective quality assurance system for customer satisfaction. An ISO9002 certificate is issued if a factory is judged by a qualified third-party organization to meet the standard. This article describes current world trends of the ISO9000 standard and Sumitomo Chemical,s related activities.
( by Ryozo ISHIMOTO, Takashi KATO )

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