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R&D Reports

vol. 2003 - II (2003.11.28 issue)

Drug Discovery Research Based on Genomics Information. -Transcriptomics and Proteomics Technologies-

Only several months has passed since Human Genome Project was successfully finished in this April. However, it has already influenced wide variety of research areas. Especially in the pharmaceutical industry, the genomic information and technology is bringing an evolutional change in its way of developing drugs, which is sometimes mentioned as a "paradigm shift". Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals has started genomics based research to facilitate its productivity of drug discovery and development four years ago. In this review, we will focus on two key technologies, transcriptome and proteome analysis, to make the use of genomic information, and will show some of our data.
( 4 - 12 by Shinichi KOJIMA,Toru KIMURA )

Bioassay Systems Using Dioxin Receptors: Applications for Eco-monitoring

At present, chemical analysis of dioxin-like compounds by high-resolution GC/MS is the standard method for determining TEQs of various samples. However, this analysis is laborious, time consuming and rather expensive, and thus unsuited for large scale screening. To circumvent these problems, we have made attempts to develop a new reporter gene assay and developed stably transformed mammalian cell lines. We tried to apply the obtained cell lines for analyzing dioxin and its related compounds in various samples such as human breast milk, and exhaust fumes and ash from incinerators, concluding that the results obtained by the reporter gene assay have very good correlation to those by GC/MS analysis.
( 12 - 18 by Haruyuki MATSUNAGA,Koichi SAITO,Kenji OEDA )

Development of Microorganism Formulation for Bioaugmentation

A method for preparing bacterial formulations suitable for bio-augmentation was developed. Coal incinerated ash (fly ash) was used to flocculate and immobilize micro-organism granules (activated sludge), and the targeted micro-organisms in the flocculants, i.e. nitrifying bacteria, were enriched through continuous culturing in a medium containing their specific substrates, e.g. ammonium and oxygen. When the enriched nitrifying bacteria were applied in a required volume to the activated sludge, nitrification of the activated sludge was reactivated just as anticipated.
( 19 - 25 by Yosuke NAKAMURA,Masahiro AOI )

Ionic Liquid

"Ionic Liquid" has attracted many scientists' interest from various kinds of fields and so many reports have appeared on this subject just in these 10 years. It is also called "Room Temperature Molten Salt" because it is liquid at room temperature. As the result of its chemical structure, being composed of cation and anion, ionic liquid has almost no vapor pressure. Consequently it has some characteristic physico-chemical properties such as fireproofness, non-inflammability and high polarity. The most popular type of ionic liquid is based on nitrogen, where the salt is mostly composed of ammonium, pyridinium or imidazolium cation and some kind of anion. Generally, ionic liquids are synthesized as follows. First, nitrogen containing compound such as pyridine, imidazole or tertiary amine is reacted with alkyl halide. Then the obtained quarternary compond is treated with alkali metal compound like NaBF4, NaPF6 or LiN(SO2CF3)2 in an appropriate solvent to give the corresponding salt. Finally the thus obtained salt is purified. The point of manufacturing process exists in the purification. Now, Koei is distributing the catalogue of ionic liquid to potential customers in various kinds of fields, including academic and industrial. We are ready to provide sample for evaluation and also to collaborate for the development of custom-made ionic liquid. We have so much experience and expertise in manufacturing many kinds of amines, pyiridines and quarternary ammonium salts (phase transfer catalysts). We would like to introduce the history, properties, synthetic method and potential applications of ionic liquid as well as Koei's activity in this field.
( 26 - 34 by Toshito SAKAI,Masatoshi USUI,Yoshimi YAMADA )

Development of a Visible Light Responsive TiO2 Photocatalyst

A visible light responsive TiO2 photocatalyst powder (TPS) was produced by a wet-chemical process, which can be applied as a mass production process. TPS decomposes acetaldehyde under irradiation of the light with wavelength lower than 550nm. Under fluorescent lamp irradiation, the activity of TPS was several times higher than that of commercial TiO2 photocatalyst. A coating agent (TSS) was prepared by an improved conventional coating agent preparation method. Anatase type crystalline particles are dispersed in water, therefore, the photocatalytic activity is observed by coating followed by drying without calcination. The TSS coating layer exhibited antibacterial activity under visible light irradiation.
( 35 - 41 by Yoshiaki SAKATANI,Kensen OKUSAKO,Yuko YOSHIDA,Yasuyuki OKI,Hiroyuki ANDO,Hironobu KOIKE )

Morphology Control of Polymer Alloy by Reactive Processing and Morphology Evolution.

It outlines the history of polymer alloys and reactive processing is explained in detail as the method for getting compatibilized polymer alloy of immiscible system. The polymer alloy of finely distributed structure is obtained by mixing, making block co-polymer in melt kneading process using a reactive compatibilizer. The PP/PA alloy system and the PPE/PA alloy system are explained in detail. Furthermore
( 42 - 54 by Takashi SANADA,Satoru MORITOMI,Shinya UTSUMI )

Introduction of SAFER Real-Time System

In May 2003, SAFER Real-Time System was installed in Ehime Works of Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., the first installation in Japan. This software system is to monitor chemical process and to facilitate emergency response, in which real time meteorological data and gas sensor data are put in PC and their air dispersion simulation results under pre-determined scenario are shown on display in a form of map. Plume which is caused by release of chemical substance is usually unseen. But under this SAFER Real-Time System, its location (snapshot) and state are displayed in color on screen, through which we are able to issue a warning to those who are down the wind by providing them with information on an approximate arrival time and concentration of such plume at a time of real accident or emergency drill.
( 55 - 61 by Toyoaki NAKARAI )

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